This treatment is alertable in ACBL regulations.[1] Inverted minor raise is a treatment to partner's minor suit openings. This treatment is alertable in ACBL regulations.

Motivation Edit

Inverted minor raises were developed as an improvement to natural fit responses to a minor, as well as to limit raises of minor suits. Here are a few reasons:

  • The auction 1-P-2-P-P-P never happens. If neither partner has any major suit to mention, there's no way the opponents will let them buy the contract for 2. Thus, 3 would be a better preemptive response.
  • A limit raise of 1-3 may be useful as an invitation to a minor suit game, but it is more useful as an invitation to 3NT. It is therefore best to leave as much room as possible to determine if this is feasible.

Responses Edit

After a minor suit opening (1 or 1), responder may raise the minor suit as follows:

  • With 6-10 points, 4 card support, and no 4-card major, bid the minor at the 3-level.
  • With 11+ points, 4 card support, and no 4-card major, bid the minor at the 2-level. This bid is forcing unless responder is a passed hand. It is not a limit bid.
  • Higher jump raises may also be used, but these are weak and indicative of very freakish distribution.
  • First developed within the Kaplan-Sheinwold system, using a Weak Notrump and Five-Card Majors, the requirement for the single raise allowed for very few hands with only four-card support. The jump-raise with only four card-support was not allowed. I don't think either of these requirements have changed very much for most people.
  • The single raise originally showed nine or more points, not eleven or more. I know that many pairs that combine the convention with Strong Notrump systems have higher requirements but it is not universal.
  • Some pairs play the single raise as game-forcing. I don't point this out because I think it's sane, I don't, but because it is fairly common.

Opener's rebids after single (unlimited) raise Edit

  • 3 of the original minor shows a real suit (4+ cards) and 13-14 points. This bid is not forcing
  • 2NT shows a balanced hand suitable for notrump and 13-14 points. Opener often has just a three-card minor suit. This bid is not forcing.
  • 3NT shows a balanced hand and 18-19 points. Opener may have a three-card minor suit.
  • A new suit shows 15+ points, confirms a real opening suit (4+ cards), and at least 3 cards (often 4) in the new suit including a stopper. This bid is forcing.
  • Playing a Weak Notrump, for which the convention was originally designed, the only rebid by opener that didn't force to game was three of the original Minor. A 2NT rebid showed a Strong Notrump (15+HCP) with no really weak suit. A 3NT rebid, for most pairs playing a Weak NT, was defined as showing a specific hand type. For many it was a minimum Strong NT, unsuitable for play in the Minor and discouraging for slam.
  • Many pairs who play a Strong NT define the 2NT rebid as showing a balanced 12-13 and jump to game on a balanced 14-15. This makes it difficult to show the 18-19 HCP hand.

Follow-up Edit

For the rest of the auction, the following agreements are in place:

  • Any bid of the agreed minor or 2NT indicates a minimum, given the preceding bids, and is not forcing (unless 3NT has already been bid, in which case game must be reached).
  • A bid of 3NT is a natural sign-off.
  • Any other suit bid is forcing and shows stoppers below 3NT

Opener's rebids after a jump (preemptive) raise Edit

  • Pass -- this is the usual action.
  • 3NT is possible with a balanced hand and 18-19 points.
  • A new suit is a game try, showing a strong 4-card suit.
  • 4 of the agreed minor is a further preempt and must be passed.
  • 5 of the agreed minor is a sign-off in game.

A word of caution Edit

  • Jump (preemptive) raises may not be optimal with a balanced hand and honors in the unbid suits. Prefer 1NT in this case.


  1. [1] Response to One-Level Opening Suit Bids : Three-level jump raises not in competition which promise less than invitational values

External Links Edit


Single raise - Jump raise
Competitive raise - Preemptive raise - Constructive raise - Limit raise - Forcing raise
Inverted minor raise - Bergen raise - Splinter - Jacoby 2NT - Truscott 2NT (Jordan 2NT)
Quantitative slam invite